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Breckenridge landscape

Breckenridge landscape



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Breckenridge landscape architecture

Breckenridge landscape architecture (also known as landscape architecture (LA)) has evolved from the landscape architecture profession. Developing out of developments of landscape architecture at the turn of the 19th century, the discipline was recognized as a separate practice as early as the 1920s. The first BPA (Builders Painters Architects) to form, the Western Institute of Landscape Architecture (WILA) was formed in Denver, Colorado in 1936. By 1947, LA was recognized as a professional practice in the US. In 1956, the American Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) formed as a trade organization for LA.

History

Landscape architecture as an academic discipline has roots in landscape design history from as early as the mid-17th century in Britain and Scandinavia. Early examples in England include Sir Christopher Wren's designs for St. Paul's Cathedral in London and for the Bankside in Southwark. Architects who formed what is generally accepted as the first landscape architecture program, including William Reynolds and Joshua Steele, designed public parks in the early 18th century in Britain and the United States.

Early landscape architecture in the U.S. followed a model of scientific landscape design developed by prominent British landscape designers of the 19th century. This model derived from earlier traditions such as that of Calvert Vaux. Leading practitioners included Frederick Law Olmsted, Charles Eliot, and Herbert Parsons. Prior to Olmsted, the landscape architecture profession in the U.S. developed in tandem with the field of public architecture, the result being a professional cadre of architects who came to define the role and practice of the landscape architect.

In the 1930s, landscape architects formed the Western Institute of Landscape Architecture in Denver, Colorado. It was one of the first formal BPA in the US and the third in the world. At that time the landscape architects were perceived as builders and artists and still bore a strong resemblance to architects. The BPA, the Western Institute and several other organizations played a major role in the development of the profession, among them initiating a land use manual and by creating a curriculum of professional studies. A. Ralph Crane of Brooklyn was elected president of the institute in 1935, and served as president for two years.

A New York City chapter of the institute was started in 1939. The American Institute of Landscape Architects was formed in 1947, and opened its first offices in New York City in 1948. AILA is now the largest U.S. landscape architecture association, with more than 40,000 members.

By 1970, landscape architecture was the fastest growing occupational category in the U.S. The profession was the 10th largest employer of construction trades, employing over 100,000 people. That year, the American Institute of Architects, the American Society of Landscape Architects, the National Association of Home Builders and the Building Industry Association of Southern California jointly commissioned a report entitled A Future in Landscape Architecture. The document outlined the market potential for the discipline, especially when combined with other sectors of the construction industry. The report, which was based on extensive research, cited some of the key factors that would lead to the demand of landscape architects as growth opportunities for the profession: higher land prices, need for eco-friendly facilities, suburban sprawl, and increased use of recreation as a lifestyle.

Before its standardization into a BSc degree in 1971, landscape architecture was delivered as a specialization under the baccalaureate programs in Architecture, the Landscape Architecture program in Architecture, and the Bachelor of Arts or Science degrees. All of these options offered the landscape architecture student education in the liberal arts as well as specialization in landscape architecture, and typically would lead to a degree in the field. Some universities also offered a Bachelor of Science degree that was four years long but had an emphasis in environmental studies. This degree was commonly called "Environmental Science, Landscape Architecture" or "Environmental Science and Landscape Architecture."

As universities across the United States began providing landscape architecture as a BSc option, requirements for the degree changed from the traditional form of general studies, and the course work focused on the field. The first programs in general studies were offered at Illinois State University, the University of Illinois, and the University of Minnesota.Pada tahun 1970, Rutgers University menubuhkan Sarjana Muda Sains dalam Seni Bina Landskap, dan pada tahun 1972, University of Connecticut dan Universiti Syracuse diikuti. Universiti Pennsylvania menubuhkan program seni bina landskap pada tahun 1973, dan yang pertama dalam kajian umum di University of Maryland pada tahun 1974. Senibina landskap juga diperkenalkan sebagai pilihan ijazah sarjana muda di University of Washington pada tahun yang sama. Program utama seni bina landskap pertama di Amerika Syarikat ditawarkan di Iowa State University pada tahun yang sama. Selepas sesi musim panas untuk jurusan yang berpotensi, kursus seni bina landskap menjadi tawaran biasa pada tahun 1978.

Menjelang tahun 1973, Jabatan Dalam Negeri A.S. adalah pelanggan terbesar untuk arkitek landskap di negara ini, membayar arkitek landskap $ 97 juta pada tahun itu. Tanggungjawab mereka termasuk taman persekutuan, hutan negara, dan taman. Pada tahun 1980 -an, kerajaan persekutuan memainkan peranan utama dalam pembangunan kod etika kebangsaan untuk arkitek landskap. Institut Arkitek Landskap Bersertifikat (ICLA) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1982, dengan lebih daripada 800 ahli. Kod Etika AILA kebangsaan ditubuhkan pada tahun 1990. Pada tahun 1985, Institut Pendidikan Alam Sekitar, sebuah organisasi profesional yang memberi tumpuan kepada mendidik sekolah dan orang awam, telah ditubuhkan.

Pada tahun 1986, University of Oregon, Cornell University, dan University of Arizona memperkenalkan seni bina landskap sebagai pilihan ijazah sarjana muda, walaupun kursus


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